People often have questions – Can a person get infected from a dog? How can I get infected? How? And from the dog’s saliva?
Fear is quite understandable, because without having the necessary information, you do not know what to do and whether you need to do anything at all in a given situation (bite, scratch, drooling).
In short, YES!
You can get sick and infection and parasites (worms) and more unpleasant things.
In this article we will try to answer what and how you can pick up from a pet (or from a wild Dog)
The content of the article:
Can a person get infected from a dog?
“Diseases from animals” about a century ago began to be called zoonoses. The human body for zoonotic pathogens of bacterial and viral nature is a nonspecific host – a biological dead end. This means that a sick person is not dangerous to others, only sometimes, extremely rarely, the transmission of the causative agent of a zoonotic infection from person to person is possible. The epidemic process in zoonoses is the defeat (infection) of people who find themselves in the circulation of the pathogen. This can happen when a sick animal is at home. From an epidemiological standpoint, the isolation of zoonoses is advisable, since the pathogens circulate among domestic animals.
Diseases, the reservoir of the causative agent of which are wild animals, are called natural focal. The foci of disease associated with domestic animals are called anthropurgic. The line between them is not always clear enough..
- The possibility of human infection from pets is determined by:
- the type of pet;
- the presence of an infectious disease in a pet;
- the mode of the pet (condition of its keeping);
- the time during which the animal already lives at home.
- a nosological form of infectious diseases, etc. It is quite obvious that if a cat or dog has already been living in your house for a long time without external manifestations of the disease, or if the cat and dog are walking without free visiting the street, then these animals are most likely healthy. It is also necessary that the animals are periodically examined by a veterinarian and routine preventive vaccinations (against rabies, leptospirosis, etc.)
What pets are the most common in our country and how can you get infected from them??
Dogs can be a source of leptospirosis.
Sick animals are of the greatest epidemiological importance, but some tolerate leptospirosis without any clinical manifestations. The main route of transmission is waterborne. Human infection most often occurs when skin and mucous membranes come into contact with water contaminated with animal secretions, saliva, and animal urine.
Dogs infected with the rabies virus can be the source of this scary disease.
Human infection occurs when animals bite or salivate damaged skin or mucous membranes. The virus is released into the external environment with the saliva of the animal. Cases of human diseases are described when animals were healthy for a long time. You should be especially careful if other dogs or wild animals attack while walking on your dog while hunting, as in this case it is possible that the attacked animal was sick.
Domestic animals certainly play a role in the spread of zoonoses. However, the proportion of these diseases in the overall structure of infections is much less than it is commonly thought. Defects in the organization of epidemiological and parasitological control over the activity of natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis, leptospirosis, Lyme disease, ornithosis, brucellosis and other infections are of much greater importance in increasing the incidence of zoonoses..
Source: https://www.infectology.ru/forall/zweri9.aspx (Bulletin of Infectology)
Is it possible to get an infection?
There are many diseases common to humans and pets, but many of them can be avoided by knowing about them and taking elementary preventive measures..
Ringworm – an infectious disease caused by a group of fungi (main representatives: Microsporum, Trihofitum), characterized by superficial inflammation of the skin, hair and coat, and nail damage. Almost all pets and humans suffer from this disease. Human infection occurs through contact with an animal or through care items. Despite the fact that ringworm does not pose a threat to the life of animals and humans, the treatment of this disease is long and laborious. Therefore, veterinarians recommend an annual vaccination of dogs and cats against lichen, especially for animals visiting the street (potential for infection) and in families with small children (increased susceptibility to this disease).
Ectoparasites. Many ectoparasites can parasitize the skin and wool of small pets living next to humans. Some of them (sarcoptic mange) can also live on human skin, some are capable of stinging (notoedrosis, cheiletiellosis), but cannot live permanently on human skin. To protect yourself, your loved ones and your pets, it is necessary to regularly treat the animals living in the house with drugs that scare away and destroy insects parasitizing animals. You need to know that among ectoparasites there are strictly species-specific representatives that can parasitize only on animals of certain types of animals. So the causative agents of demodicosis and otodectosis of dogs cannot exist on human skin and, therefore, the owner cannot become infected from his dog or cat who is sick with demodicosis or otodectosis. At the same time, a person is susceptible to bird demodectic mange and chickens sick with demodectic mange can serve as a source of infection for humans..
Endoparasites. Endoparasites (parasites that live inside the body) are usually referred to as helminths and protozoa. There are a huge number of helminths that affect the gastrointestinal tract and internal organs of animals and humans. Human infection occurs when helminth eggs, excreted with feces by sick animals, enter the gastrointestinal tract through the mouth. Undoubtedly, it is almost impossible to completely prevent the possibility of infecting a pet with endoparasites. Infection of an animal can occur both through direct contact with a sick animal, and through poorly thermally processed food, through the soil, etc. Therefore, veterinarians recommend 4 times a year to carry out preventive deworming and carefully observe hygiene measures when caring for pets and cleaning cat litter.
Toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by protozoa.
Many species of domestic and wild animals, including humans, are susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Infection occurs when Toxoplasma oocysts enter the gastrointestinal tract through contaminated food and water. Of domestic animals, only cats can pose some danger, dogs, like humans, suffer from toxoplasmosis, but do not release oocysts into the external environment. Therefore, a person cannot become infected from a dog with toxoplasmosis. The development of Toxoplasma with the formation of forms capable of infecting other animals occurs in the intestines of only cats and only immediately after infection of the animal, therefore it is not recommended to acquire a new cat into the house during pregnancy.
Chlamydia. Chlamydiae are microorganisms that can exist asymptomatically for a long time in the body of animals and humans. There are several types of chlamydia, but it must be borne in mind that this microorganism has a certain species-specificity. Chlamydia, affecting cats and dogs, is not transmitted to humans, therefore, the owner cannot contract chlamydia from these animals. Chlamydia ornithosis is dangerous for humans, the source of infection of which can be sick and ill birds. Birds (wild and domestic) excrete chlamydia with feces, nasal mucus, saliva, and cells, feed, water contaminated with the pathogen can also be transmission factors. Infection occurs through the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. In sick birds, the respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems are affected. In humans, chlamydial infection is manifested by gastrointestinal disorders, bronchitis, fever, enlarged liver and spleen.
Source: https://www.svoydoctor.ru/vladeltsam/poleznoe/stati/chem-mozhno-zarazitsya-ot-pitomtsa-ili-zabolevaniya-obshchie-dlya-cheloveka-i-zhivotnykh/ (Network of Veterinary Clinics “Your Doctor “)
What other diseases exist?
Plague – acute, highly contagious disease of carnivores, characterized by cutaneous exanthema, inflammation of the mucous membranes, fever, pneumonia and damage to the nervous system. It is ubiquitous and damaging.
The virus is homogenous in immunobiological terms, has antigenic and immunobiological relationship with the human measles virus, as well as a one-way antigenic relationship with the rinderpest virus.
At -20 ° C in the organs of dead animals, the virus survives for up to 6 months. Heating up to + 60 ° C destroys it in 30 minutes.
The source of the causative agent of infection is infected animals. A sick dog secretes the virus in various ways – with outflows from the eyes, nose, saliva, feces, urine. Recovered dogs can shed the virus for up to 3 months.
Sick dogs play a major role in the spread of plague. Visiting various places, they infect the soil and various objects. Infection is possible when healthy dogs sniff sick dogs.
From the epizootological data, the age of the dogs is important (more often puppies get sick after jigging), the breed, an increase in the number of sick animals after mass events (exhibition, vaccinations, etc.).
General preventive measures for plague of dogs are as follows: it is not recommended to import dogs from plague-dysfunctional farms to prosperous kennels; keep all newly arrived animals in quarantine for 30 days; when organizing exhibitions, competitions, all dogs must be vaccinated against plague beforehand and conduct a thorough veterinary examination before holding events; strictly observe the rules of keeping and feeding dogs; regularly carry out preventive disinfection.
The effectiveness of the prevention of canine plague increases with a combination of general veterinary-sanitary and zootechnical measures with specific ones. Active immunization of dogs against carnivorous plague is mandatory. Only clinically healthy animals are vaccinated. It is not recommended to vaccinate puppies in hot and cold rainy weather.
Infectious hepatitis (Rubert’s disease) – an acute contagious disease characterized by fever, catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and intestines, lesions of the liver and central nervous system.
The virus is resistant to various physical factors. When frozen, dried and in a 50% glycerol solution at room temperature, the virus remains virulent for several years, in nature it persists for over 2 years. At a temperature of 4 ° C, the virus is active for more than 9 months, at 37 – up to 39 days, 50 – 150 min, 60 – 3 – 5 min, at 100 ° C – up to 1 min. The pathogen is resistant to ether, chloroform and methanol. Under natural conditions, dogs of all ages and breeds are susceptible to infectious hepatitis, but especially young animals at 1.5-6 months. Animals over 3 years old rarely get sick. Arctic foxes, foxes, wolves and jackals also get sick. Mice, certain species of monkeys and humans can be latent carriers of Carnivore Infectious Hepatitis Virus.
The main source of the causative agent of infection are dogs (convalescents and virus carriers), in which the virus is excreted in urine, nasal mucus, conjunctival secretions and feces. A characteristic epizootological feature of infectious hepatitis in dogs is a long-term virus carrier for several years. Infection occurs through alimentary and contact routes. Cases of the spread of the disease have been established if the rules of asepsis and antiseptics are not followed, during surgical operations, mass vaccinations, etc..
Canine infectious hepatitis is more common in the spring and summer at the birth of young.
In the chronic course of hepatitis in dogs, the symptoms of the disease are mild and vague. Emaciation of the animal, remitting fever, anemia of the mucous membranes, the phenomenon of gastroenteritis, edema of the subcutaneous tissue are most often recorded. Chronically ill females most often abort or give birth to non-viable puppies. Long-term persistent keratitis of one or both eyes is also noted.
Of great importance is the timely identification of sick and recovered dogs with viral hepatitis and their reliable isolation, and culling in breeding nurseries. To prevent the disease of dogs with viral hepatitis, general veterinary and sanitary measures are carried out: prevention of the introduction of the pathogen; timely diagnosis of hepatitis; carrying out activities aimed at eliminating the disease.
Salmonellosis (paratyphoid) – acute contagious disease of dogs, affecting mainly puppies of weaning age and characterized by signs of acute gastroenteritis.
Many types of Salmonella are highly pathogenic and dangerous for both humans and all domestic animals. In dogs, S. typhi murium, S. enteritidis, S. cholerae suis, S. pullorum, S. anatum are most often isolated.
Salmonella is significantly resistant to environmental influences. They withstand prolonged drying and freezing (more than 3 – 4 months). In soil, manure, water, salmonella persist up to 9 – 10 months, heating to 70 – 75 ° C withstand 15 – 30 minutes.
Most often, puppies 1-6 months of age suffer from salmonellosis. Adult animals often serve as bacteria carriers. The main sources of the causative agent of infection are sick animals and clinically healthy bacteria carriers.
Factors of transmission of the pathogen may be milk, slaughterhouse waste from salmonellosis-infected farm animals, small rodents and various waste in landfills. Blood, meat and bone meal and fish meal are often seeded with salmonella.
Animals carrying bacteria are of great epizootological importance in salmonellosis. Among dogs, 1 – 18% of salmonella carriers were noted.
Salmonellosis has a number of symptoms similar to canine plague. With plague, eye lesions are more pronounced in the form of serous, purulent conjunctivitis, rhinitis is most common. Damage to the nervous system is more pronounced in the form of seizures, paresis and paralysis of the hind limbs.
For effective prevention of salmonellosis, a set of measures is required that provide for the isolation of sick animals, disinfection, and improvement of feeding and housing conditions. The main factor in the transmission of the pathogen is feed infected with Salmonella.
Dogs should not be fed meat that is spoiled or from salmonella-bearing animals.
In the event of a disease among dogs, along with therapeutic measures, measures should be systematically implemented to promote environmental sanitation. In nurseries, all sick animals are isolated, the premises are regularly cleaned and disinfected. All newly admitted and long absent dogs are quarantined. Dishes and items of care are assigned to animals. They systematically fight rodents.
Tuberculosis – a chronic infectious disease of many species of agricultural and wild animals, characterized by the formation of specific nodes in various organs – tubercles, prone to cheesy decay. According to many researchers, tuberculosis is widespread among dogs.
Mycobacteria are highly resistant to various environmental factors and chemicals. The pathogen remains viable in the soil for more than 2 years; in river water – up to 2 months; in frozen meat – up to a year; in milk for up to 10 days. Heating milk to 70 ° C kills the tuberculosis pathogen after 10 minutes, and boiling it after 3 – 5 minutes.
Many species of domestic and wild animals are susceptible to tuberculosis. The disease is widespread among dogs. There are especially many sick dogs in big cities, where they get infected from people with tuberculosis. Dogs sometimes lick human sputum and become infected.
The source of the causative agent of the infection are animals and people sick with tuberculosis, from the body of which the pathogen is excreted with milk, feces, nasal discharge, sputum. Dogs become infected by eating various raw by-products: lungs, intestines, kidneys, spleen and other organs from cattle and pigs suffering from tuberculosis.
Do not allow dogs to communicate with animals sick with tuberculosis. Meat feeds are carefully controlled. By-products obtained from animals with tuberculosis cannot be fed raw, they are well boiled. Milk from cows positively reacting to tuberculin is allowed to be fed only after pasteurization or boiling.
In the kennel, if tuberculosis is detected, all dogs are examined with an allergic test. Positively reacting animals are discarded. The cells of sick animals are thoroughly disinfected. Litter and little valuable inventory are burned.
Private dogs are subject to special control. If tuberculosis is suspected, they are isolated and tuberculinized. If the reaction is positive, the dog must be removed and destroyed, otherwise it can be a source of human infection.
Source: https://doob-054.narod.ru/conspect.html (team SAD EDEM)
Worms transmitted from dog to person. Is infection possible??
Helminths in dogs and humans
Very often, people who write articles in popular magazines, unfortunately, do not even bother at least superficially to study the issue about which they so boldly write.
Here’s some simple information to help you understand the issue:
The human temperature is 36.6 degrees, and the temperature of the dog is 38.5-39 degrees. For those living all their life (from egg to adult) in one host of parasites, a gap of 2 degrees is a HUGE difference.
Parasites cannot normally exist in such “cold” conditions, the ability to reproduce is completely lost, and the process of infection itself is possible, as a rule, only with a sharp drop in immunity, during a serious illness.
And with the recovery and restoration of immunity, canine parasites in the human body inevitably die. And under normal conditions, the egg of the same canine roundworm, once in the human body, does NOT begin to develop, because conditions are uncomfortable. And the egg just passing through the intestines comes out. In general, in nature, a dog has its own roundworm, a cow has its own, and a person has his own. So a person becomes infected with roundworms from another person and nothing else.
The developmental cycle of canine parasites
Most parasites dangerous to animals and humans go through the stages of development in DIFFERENT animals STEP BY STEP. Those. , for example, an egg falls on the soil, then a pasture mite should eat it, then a sheep (goat, cow) should eat it, and then a dog should eat the sheep meat. It is in it that the parasite will acquire the ability to reproduce, i.e. will begin to release eggs. The dog defecates on the grass, where a tick eats its feces. The cycle is closed.
So: MITER – SHEEP – DOG. How can we get this disease from a dog? Yes, NO. Yes, the dog is in the chain, BUT even if it is infected, the eggs of the parasite must still go through the first stage of development through the tick. In humans, they cannot develop without visiting a tick, the stage does not allow, they die in a warm-blooded animal. And we don’t eat ticks together with grass like sheep … and if we eat, then our intestines are not like that, the egg in it does not have time to “wake up”, but will still have time to die, because intestinal flora is not like that. This is not our parasite and that’s it.
But the disease is dangerous for humans – Fascioliasis (helminths in the liver)
There the cycle also goes through the intermediate host, the pond snail.
SHEEP (or person) – SNAIL – SHEEP (or person). How does a sheep get infected? And she drinks dirty water from the pond in which the snail lives and swallows the larvae.
Do you drink raw water from stagnant reservoirs (not rivers, pond snails do not live in rivers)? If so, then maybe you really should get tested for fascioliasis.
Although, in our region, the disease is rare, we have a dry summer here, there are few swamps and ponds….
There the development cycle is as follows:
CAT (or man, dog, fox) – FRESHWATER MOLLUSC – CARP fish. Infection occurs when eating contaminated, uncooked freshwater fish. You know, home-smoked balyk, for example, bought at the market …
Is it possible to get infected from a dog? NO, you can’t, because in order to become infectious, the larva must still visit the shellfish and fish. Otherwise, it won’t work … Stroke and kiss the dog as much as you like. Infection occurs ONLY when eating fish meat. But if you love river fish, and don’t even come close to dogs, you can get infected for sure. Nobody cooks fish properly for 40 minutes…
The only disease that is transmitted directly from a dog to a person is echinococcosis
The disease is dangerous, difficult to cure in humans (in a dog it is treated simply with a single dacha of the anthelmintic), but, fortunately, it is extremely rare. The fact is that the dog itself can become infected ONLY by eating the liver of a dead infected sheep. Echinococcosis is a disease of priotary shepherd dogs. Widely distributed in the Caucasus and Central Asia. In our regions, it seems, there are no dead infectious sheep on the streets …
In general, the best way to sleep well and not think about parasites is to worm the dog as it should be 1 time in 3 months. Why once every 3 months? Because the cycles of development (the time from an egg to a sexually mature individual capable of reproducing) of parasites take a certain time and for most parasites it is 4 months or more. If the worms are chased properly, then the parasites do not have time to start “spawning”, and the dog will always be safe for other dogs, animals and humans, and it will not have time to suffer from infection..
There are many articles on the Internet that mislead people.
I was especially amused by the statements on one of the sites that “most often the infection occurs from pets …”
This is, of course, not true. Most often, infection occurs from the fact that the rules of personal hygiene are not followed – do not wash your hands before eating. And the eggs themselves fall on the hands from grass, soil, reservoirs, raw contaminated meat and fish (when gutting and cutting).
“everything in the apartment is strewn with eggs of parasites” This is an exaggeration, at least, a catchword recognized to catch up with fear.
I am already silent about the fact that even a heavily worm-headed dog is usually not dangerous for humans (although it is dangerous for other dogs, for example).
“from feces, parasites pass into animal fur ..” I wish I could see how this is technically possible. People will come up with it …
“eggs of pinworms that have fallen from the fur remain viable ..”
The fact is that Pinworms live only with people, or rather children.
In adults, even without any treatment, they die, because the immunity of an adult is high and the parasites cannot stand it, cannot multiply. And dogs do not have such a disease at all. There is not even a similar one. And, of course, a dog cannot serve as a source of infection. Those. this statement is simply sucked out of the thumb.
“The main cause of hemorrhoids is pinworms ..” That would have laughed proctologists! Even the average person knows that the causes of this disease are completely different. And pinworms in adults, as I already wrote, practically do not exist.
Preventive measures amused me, especially about bathing a dog in rubber gloves 🙂 And, in general, pay attention to the fact that there are no specific names for parasitic diseases (except pinworms, of course), a lot of fear was overtaken, but education and knowledge of the issue was clearly not enough … Don’t fall for articles like this, these are tips from a housewife after watching a cheap talk show.
Source: https://toy-volgograd.ru/gelm.html (Russian Toy Volgograd)