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History of the breed
Dachshunds are intended for hunting underground. Their function is to chase animals huddled in a hole – foxes, badgers, or slowly follow a hare, in which a small dog does not cause fear, so it does not run so fast, in a small circle.
Images of dogs with characteristic features existed in ancient Egypt, but the formation of the breed officially dates back to the 16th century, and it began in Germany – in southern Saxony.
The ancestors of dachshunds are short-legged hounds – brakki. Dachshunds have retained the hunting qualities of hounds, and short legs have become a virtue, becoming ideal dogs for burrowing hunting.
Representatives of the German middle class were seriously concerned about the problem of badger spoilage of the crop, and a new breed came to the court: there were no dogs that could more effectively control pests than dachshunds. The lithe, squat body and short limbs helped the dachshunds to move underground. Keeping such pets was not a hassle and did not require large expenses.
By the end of the 17th century, dachshunds began to be actively bred in other European countries. On the territory of Germany, nurseries were formed, supplying representatives of the breed to other states. There were no standards yet, so the appearance and characteristics of dogs from different kennels were seriously different. Each brought something of his own, paid attention and tried to enhance various features. The result was the division of the breed into two directions: decorative and working individuals.
In 1870, the first breed standard was developed and adopted, where it was indicated that dachshunds were dogs for hunting. Since 1880 the pedigree book of hunting dogs has been kept, in 1888 the German Tekel Club was founded, which united fans of the breed.
In 1890, an artificial burrow was invented for training dachshunds. The author of the invention is the German specialist von Bosch. Since 1893, this design has been used to test the performance of dachshunds..
In the modern classification, as many as nine types of dachshunds are officially declared and standardized. They differ in size and type of coat. Colors vary widely in different species.
- Smooth-haired – the basis of the breed.
- Wire-haired – were born as a result of crossing smooth-haired dachshunds and terriers. It is this species that is in greatest demand among German hunters..
- Longhaired – the result of mixing the blood of smooth-haired dachshunds and spaniels. Originally bred for hunting, these dogs now carry mainly decorative functions. They resemble setters in appearance, but on short legs.
- Miniature – this subspecies was created for hunting small game. German breeders have long struggled with nature trying to create a smaller dachshund. As a result, two more varieties of the breed appeared: dwarf and rabbit dachshunds..
In Russia, dachshunds appeared in the middle of the 18th century, but did not receive serious distribution. Only at the very beginning of the 20th century, a club combined with fox terriers was formed: the Society of Fox Terriers and Dachshunds Lovers.
If hunters did not like dachshunds, they were used much more often as decorative pets. A famous lover of the breed was Anton Pavlovich Chekhov: two dachshunds constantly lived with him – Brom Isaich and Hina Markovna.
The first half of the 20th century became tragic for Russia: two world wars, one civilian. During this time, the number of dachshunds has seriously decreased. Only 11 representatives of the breed took part in the 1958 breeding show. Now the situation has improved, and dachshunds are considered one of the most widespread and popular breeds in the country..
Description of the breed
A characteristic feature of dachshunds is an elongated body on short limbs. At the same time, dogs are surprisingly flexible, mobile, strong and flexible. There are no uniform sizes and weight characteristics – they depend on the variety.
- Height at withers – from 12 to 27 centimeters.
- Weight – depending on the type. Standard – males: from 7 to 9 kilograms, bitches: from 6.5 kilograms. Miniature – males: up to 7 kilograms, bitches: up to 6.5 kilograms. Rabbit – males: up to 4 kilograms, bitches: up to 3.5 kilograms.
- Head – elongated, tapering towards the nose, but not sharp. The superciliary arches are clearly visible. Narrow and elongated nose.
- Jaws – strong, developed. The grip is firm. The bite is scissor bite. Canines – tightly closed.
- Eyes – medium, oval, set wide apart. Color – bright, from dark brown to black, does not depend on the color of the dog.
- Ears – set high, slightly pushed forward, long, rounded, but not pointed, without folds, mobile.
- Body – with a straight or slightly sloping back, a long, developed loin. The withers are clearly visible. Belly – tucked up.
- Chest – developed, strongly brought forward, oval, spacious, with ribs laid back. The lower point is covered by the front limbs.
- Limbs – with strong muscles, well-defined angles, strong bones. Stand straight. Pointed forward. The pillows are well developed.
- Tail – covered with not very thick hair, graceful enough. Longer coat possible on the bottom.
- Wool – differs in subspecies. Smooth-haired – fits snugly to the body, short and thick, with shine. Wire-haired – on the body: thick wire-like hair, undercoat; pronounced beard and eyebrows; the hair on the ears is shorter than on the body. Long-haired – long, adjacent to the body hair, with shine and gloss, below and on the throat – longer; feathering on the ears and back of the paws; longest – from the bottom of the tail.
- Color – reddish-yellow or red of various shades, black, gray, chocolate with red or yellow spots, marbled color of the same colors. Wire-haired dogs often have wild boars in widely varying shades..
Vaccinations and periodic veterinarian examinations must be included in the schedule. [/color-box]
There are also safety rules specifically for tax owners:
- Avoid jumping the dog from any height – danger to the spine and legs.
- Can’t be taken by the scruff of the neck. You can lift them by the chest and hind legs. It is also not worth taking a puppy under the paws – you can injure your elbows.
- Children cannot carry a dachshund in their arms – they may not hold the animal, and the pet will fall from a height.
- It is better to “be friends” with dogs of the same size to avoid injury.
- Avoid excess weight: monitor diet and physical activity. Being overweight can trigger spinal problems.
- “A dog for the soul”, without participation in exhibitions or hunting, will cost several thousand rubles. These puppies do not have veterinary documents, pedigree. What health problems, character and heredity – the new owners have to find out on their own.
- A puppy with a pedigree and a veterinary passport, with vaccinations, costs much more: from 20,000 rubles.
Photos of Dachshund
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