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History of the breed
Dachshunds are intended for hunting underground. Their function is to chase animals huddled in a hole – foxes, badgers, or slowly follow a hare, in which a small dog does not cause fear, so it does not run so fast, in a small circle.
Images of dogs with characteristic features existed in ancient Egypt, but the formation of the breed officially dates back to the 16th century, and it began in Germany – in southern Saxony.
The ancestors of dachshunds are short-legged hounds – brakki. Dachshunds have retained the hunting qualities of hounds, and short legs have become a virtue, becoming ideal dogs for burrowing hunting.
Representatives of the German middle class were seriously concerned about the problem of badger spoilage of the crop, and a new breed came to the court: there were no dogs that could more effectively control pests than dachshunds. The lithe, squat body and short limbs helped the dachshunds to move underground. Keeping such pets was not a hassle and did not require large expenses.
By the end of the 17th century, dachshunds began to be actively bred in other European countries. On the territory of Germany, nurseries were formed, supplying representatives of the breed to other states. There were no standards yet, so the appearance and characteristics of dogs from different kennels were seriously different. Each brought something of his own, paid attention and tried to enhance various features. The result was the division of the breed into two directions: decorative and working individuals.
In 1870, the first breed standard was developed and adopted, where it was indicated that dachshunds were dogs for hunting. Since 1880 the pedigree book of hunting dogs has been kept, in 1888 the German Tekel Club was founded, which united fans of the breed.
In 1890, an artificial burrow was invented for training dachshunds. The author of the invention is the German specialist von Bosch. Since 1893, this design has been used to test the performance of dachshunds..
In the modern classification, as many as nine types of dachshunds are officially declared and standardized. They differ in size and type of coat. Colors vary widely in different species.
- Smooth-haired – the basis of the breed.
- Wire-haired – were born as a result of crossing smooth-haired dachshunds and terriers. It is this species that is in greatest demand among German hunters..
- Longhaired – the result of mixing the blood of smooth-haired dachshunds and spaniels. Originally bred for hunting, these dogs now carry mainly decorative functions. They resemble setters in appearance, but on short legs.
- Miniature – this subspecies was created for hunting small game. German breeders have long struggled with nature trying to create a smaller dachshund. As a result, two more varieties of the breed appeared: dwarf and rabbit dachshunds..
In Russia, dachshunds appeared in the middle of the 18th century, but did not receive serious distribution. Only at the very beginning of the 20th century, a club combined with fox terriers was formed: the Society of Fox Terriers and Dachshunds Lovers.
If hunters did not like dachshunds, they were used much more often as decorative pets. A famous lover of the breed was Anton Pavlovich Chekhov: two dachshunds constantly lived with him – Brom Isaich and Hina Markovna.
The first half of the 20th century became tragic for Russia: two world wars, one civilian. During this time, the number of dachshunds has seriously decreased. Only 11 representatives of the breed took part in the 1958 breeding show. Now the situation has improved, and dachshunds are considered one of the most widespread and popular breeds in the country..
Description of the breed
A characteristic feature of dachshunds is an elongated body on short limbs. At the same time, dogs are surprisingly flexible, mobile, strong and flexible. There are no uniform sizes and weight characteristics – they depend on the variety.
- Height at withers – from 12 to 27 centimeters.
- Weight – depending on the type. Standard – males: from 7 to 9 kilograms, bitches: from 6.5 kilograms. Miniature – males: up to 7 kilograms, bitches: up to 6.5 kilograms. Rabbit – males: up to 4 kilograms, bitches: up to 3.5 kilograms.
- Head – elongated, tapering towards the nose, but not sharp. The superciliary arches are clearly visible. Narrow and elongated nose.
- Jaws – strong, developed. The grip is firm. The bite is scissor bite. Canines – tightly closed.
- Eyes – medium, oval, set wide apart. Color – bright, from dark brown to black, does not depend on the color of the dog.
- Ears – set high, slightly pushed forward, long, rounded, but not pointed, without folds, mobile.
- Body – with a straight or slightly sloping back, a long, developed loin. The withers are clearly visible. Belly – tucked up.
- Chest – developed, strongly brought forward, oval, spacious, with ribs laid back. The lower point is covered by the front limbs.
- Limbs – with strong muscles, well-defined angles, strong bones. Stand straight. Pointed forward. The pillows are well developed.
- Tail – covered with not very thick hair, graceful enough. Longer coat possible on the bottom.
- Wool – differs in subspecies. Smooth-haired – fits snugly to the body, short and thick, with shine. Wire-haired – on the body: thick wire-like hair, undercoat; pronounced beard and eyebrows; the hair on the ears is shorter than on the body. Long-haired – long, adjacent to the body hair, with shine and gloss, below and on the throat – longer; feathering on the ears and back of the paws; longest – from the bottom of the tail.
- Color – reddish-yellow or red of various shades, black, gray, chocolate with red or yellow spots, marbled color of the same colors. Wire-haired dogs often have wild boars in widely varying shades..
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The inscription on the coat of arms of the German Tekel Club speaks briefly and clearly about the breed: “The sense of dignity and strong character evoke sympathy.”
Lack of fear, pronounced character traits, independent decision-making, cunning and ingenuity are inherent in dachshunds. At the same time, animals can be stubborn and resist the owner’s decisions.
All these qualities are quite explainable by the purpose of the breed: during the hunt, in the burrow of the beast, they are the ones required from the dachshund. Without the opportunity to hear the owner, the dog is obliged to independently make the right decisions. This is what she does.
If the pet refuses to follow the command, it may think that in this situation the owner knows better what to do. But, if the command matches his own vision, it will be executed instantly and accurately.
Dachshunds do not tolerate offense and disrespect: an offended animal will definitely disagree with this state of affairs, using a rich arsenal: disobedience, ignorance, violation of the rules. When starting such a dog, you need to remember that respect should be mutual.
The dachshund, however, is an excellent companion that will find a place in the heart of all family members, and she herself will treat loved ones with love. The pet will especially highlight the child who most often invites to participate in the games. Phlegmatic and calm, the dog will support the general mood, take part in fun and entertainment.
A dachshund of any kind will become a full-fledged member of the family, with its own character and requirements, but also with sincere love for the people around it.
With children – no problem. The pet will gladly take part in the games, will respond with gratitude to care and attention. Precautions are also needed: do not involve dogs of this breed in aggressive games: hunting instincts can outweigh education, and the dachshund’s bite is quite painful.
The dog appreciates comfort, chooses cozy and warm places for himself. He gladly crawls under the covers or lies on the owner’s lap. Stroking and scratching are always welcome. The dachshunds are very clean.
Curiosity, courage and playfulness allow the dog to live comfortably in any conditions – both in a large house and in a small apartment. At the same time, the dachshund will become an excellent companion on tourist trips – the animal loves to walk, new places are interesting, it will stand up to the owner’s defense without hesitation.
The powerful barking of the dachshund does not correspond to its modest size, so the representatives of the breed are quite capable of scaring off an intruder with one voice.
Before you bring your puppy home, there are a few things to take care of:
- Remove chemicals, flowers, cables, shoes away from the curious baby.
- Immediately equip the places where the puppy will eat and sleep, buy a tool for trimming nails, a leash-tape for walking, detergents, accessories for eye and ear care.
- Purchase a tray and diapers for the toilet that absorb moisture well. Little dachshunds have an accelerated metabolism, so there won’t be many diapers.
- Dachshunds are undemanding dogs, and it doesn’t take much effort to care for them. But there are features.
- Before six months, you should not wash your dachshund puppy, it is enough to wash your paws after a walk. In adulthood, bathing no more than once every three months.
- It is enough to trim the claws of an adult dog once every three months, babies need this procedure more often – twice a month.
- Periodically, you need to clean your ears and teeth, wipe your eyes.
- Individuals with short hair should be wiped with a clean cloth, and long-haired dachshunds should be periodically brushed.
- Natural food is preferable for this breed, but premium-class dry food can also be used, with all the necessary minerals and vitamins. If the dog does not finish the portion, the leftovers must be removed so as not to provoke a sluggish meal.
- It is strictly forbidden to feed the dog from the table.
Puppies should not eat bones, spicy, highly salty, fatty, natural milk, pork, raw fish.
Toilet training is a difficult task. The baby’s fast metabolic process contributes to frequent urges, and he may not have time to reach. Until vaccinations are made, the puppy goes to the toilet at home. Scraps of newspapers are used to indicate the location.
It is necessary to educate and establish rules of conduct from the first day of the puppy’s stay at home. If he notices that he can neglect the requirements of the owner with impunity, then he will definitely use this.
Little dachshunds will climb into the warmest and most comfortable places. If your plans do not include sharing a bed and a blanket with your pet, you need to stop this behavior right away, transferring the baby who wants to soak up on his own bed, repeating the command “Place”. The pet must clearly understand what the owner is dissatisfied with.
Dachshunds, by their nature, actively react to external factors, so it would be useful to conduct training on the street so that the puppies get used to the noise and sing out commands from it.
In training, it is preferable to motivate the dog with a favorite treat: a dachshund who loves to eat will do everything to get it. And you need to stay away from severity, rudeness and violence: such methods are not for dachshunds.
Representatives of this breed are able to learn and apply all possible commands. Speed and execution depends on a well-designed process.
Dachshunds are healthy dogs, to the delight of the owners. Common diseases and infections inherent in other breeds may appear, but two diseases are inherent in dachshunds:
- Swimmer Effect. Such a violation is manifested in monthly puppies – they cannot stand on their paws and move, “raking” with their paws – such movements are similar to the strokes of a swimmer. Usually this is an intermediate state, and, having gained strength, the puppies overcome gravity. But there are also difficult cases. Babies do not need to feed too much so that excess weight does not interfere. It is also worth paying attention to the floor surface so that it does not slip..
- Dysplasia of intervertebral discs. Hereditary disease is quite common due to the specific body structure of this breed. Most often, the disease manifests itself at the age of 5-7 years, but it can occur earlier. Preventive measures: monitor diet and exercise to avoid excess weight and reduce pressure on the spine.
There are also safety rules specifically for tax owners:
- Avoid jumping the dog from any height – danger to the spine and legs.
- Can’t be taken by the scruff of the neck. You can lift them by the chest and hind legs. It is also not worth taking a puppy under the paws – you can injure your elbows.
- Children cannot carry a dachshund in their arms – they may not hold the animal, and the pet will fall from a height.
- It is better to “be friends” with dogs of the same size to avoid injury.
- Avoid excess weight: monitor diet and physical activity. Being overweight can trigger spinal problems.
- “A dog for the soul”, without participation in exhibitions or hunting, will cost several thousand rubles. These puppies do not have veterinary documents, pedigree. What health problems, character and heredity – the new owners have to find out on their own.
- A puppy with a pedigree and a veterinary passport, with vaccinations, costs much more: from 20,000 rubles.
Photos of Dachshund
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