Jack Russell Terrier dog breed is well known to many from the movie “The Mask”.
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History of the origin of the breed
The breed was bred in England. The breed owes its name to the parish priest Parson Jack Russell (who, by the way, also bred the rarest variety of this breed – the Parson Russell Terrier). In addition to church activities, Russell devoted his time to hunting and dog breeding. As for the Jack Russell Terriers, their original purpose was to hunt rats. It should be noted that the amazing hunting skills have not been lost by the representatives of the breed to this day, although they have made excellent companions. There is no typo in the name of the founder of the breed, the fact is that the nickname “Jack” was known more than the real name.
Russell began work on the breed in the 1800s, the ancestors of today’s Jack Russell Terriers were the old type fox terriers. Jack Russell Terriers were crossed with other breeds of dogs, but most often experiments ended in a loss of working qualities. The breed had two varieties, differing in height and format.
After World War II, the first Jack Russell Terriers came to France as a gift. Thus began the spread of the Jack Russell Terrier dog in Europe. However, the official recognition of the breed and the first club was opened in England only in 1975, at the same time the first breed standard for small dogs was approved. In France, the first club was founded in 1990.
Of course, over the years, the breed has undergone some changes. In an attempt to create the ideal morals of these dogs, cynologists and dog breeders bred new species, as a result of which their huge diversity is observed today. But there are also unchanging traits of their character, which are certainly inherent in all representatives of this breed. Today, taller, square-sized dogs are called Parson Russell Terriers..
Description of the breed
The Jack Russell Terrier is a small breed terrier dog. The dog Jack Russell Terrier is small in stature, with raised ears on the cartilage. This small breed dog is distinguished by its proud and independent look. Initially, the Jack Russell Terrier dog was a village yard dog, but recently she began to accompany owners in large cities. The main reason for this is the excellent character and cheerful disposition that distinguishes the dog Jack Russell Terrier..
The current breed standard was approved in 2004. The Jack Russell Terrier is a small hunting dog with a flexible body, strong and active. Jack Russell Terriers have an intelligent, insightful look and are fearless, agile, friendly dogs.
- The head of the Jack Russell Terrier is flat, moderately wide, gradually tapering to the eyes. The transition from forehead to muzzle is implicit, but well defined.
- Hanging or button-shaped ears, very mobile.
- The eyes are dark, small, almond-shaped, by no means protruding. The expression in the eyes is penetrating. The eyelids are closed, the edges are pigmented black. The nose of the Jack Russell Terrier is straight, the nose is black.
- The bite in dogs is scissor bite, the muscles of the cheeks are well developed. The jaws are powerful, wide and strong, the teeth are strong. Lips are pigmented with black, fit snugly to the teeth.
- The body in dogs is of medium length, more extended in length than in width. The neck is strong.
- The chest is deep but not wide. The ribs diverge from the ridge, narrowing at the sides so that the dog can be grasped with the palms of both hands (about 40-43 cm in girth). The back of the Jack Russell Terrier breed is straight, the loin is strong, short, muscular.
- The front legs of the Jack Russell Terrier are located directly under the body, the forearms are straight. Paws are rounded, tightly packed, with soft pads and moderately arched toes. Feet should not be turned outward or inward..
- The hind legs are muscular and strong, the hocks are low. Rounded feet rest on soft pads, toes well arched but moderately.
- The tail may hang down at rest; when excited, the dog carries the tail vertically. The tail is docked at will. If docking is done, the tip of the tail should be flush with the ears.
- The coat of Jack Russell Terriers can be smooth, harsh or broken. In any case, the coat should protect the dog from bad weather. Artificial modifications to the coat (to give it a smooth or broken look) are not allowed.
The color of the Jack Russell Terrier is predominantly white, with black and / or red spots. Red spots can be of any shade, from chestnut to the lightest.
Character of Jack Russell Terrier
Friendly, docile, funny and non-aggressive, an excellent hunter and a great companion, the Jack Russell Terrier can be a real source of joy in your home. Small size allows dogs to feel great even in a relatively small apartment.
Jack Russell Terriers are very funny, funny and playful dogs. Like all terriers, they have a strong and independent character. Therefore, the process of training this breed is not always an easy task, sometimes it is not so easy to cope with them. However, perseverance and patience when training these dogs always give positive results..
However, remember that your dog remains a terrier in the full sense of the word – his irrepressible energy needs to be released. Not receiving the necessary physical activity, the attention of the owner, not being able to play active games, the Jack Russell Terrier will try to find something to do for himself, and you may not like his choice at all.
They are kind and unpretentious, raising such a dog is a pleasure, since it is very attentive and simply “absorbs all knowledge like a sponge”. She needs constant attention and affection from the owner, otherwise she feels deprived and unhappy. They are able to live both in a country house and in urban conditions, living conditions do not matter for them, the main thing is that they are constantly surrounded by love and affection.
Jack Russell Terrier is a kind of ball of seething energy. It is also important that the Jack Russell Terrier is always busy, because if he is bored, then destructive behavior cannot be avoided. It is very good if the dog participates in any competition or trains regularly.
One of the most famous representatives of this breed – Jack Russell named Boti – not only accompanied his owner Sir R. Fienness on his travels to the North and South Poles, but also became famous for his amazing ability to play football.
Dogs are quite friendly towards children, especially if they grow up with them. These dogs need constant attention, if they do not receive it, this can lead to uncontrollable behavior, excessive barking, digging and damage to things.
Jack Russell Terriers are very curious, so they can easily get into trouble. It is important to remember that these dogs do not like to be “tame dogs” and prefer to be on their own. They don’t like to spend a lot of time in one place and prefer a change of environment. These are persistent, hardy and overactive dogs, therefore they are not suitable for everyone, so it will be difficult for older people to cope with such a dog..
Jack Russell Terrier and other pets
Jack Russell Terriers can be aggressive with other dogs, especially if they were poorly socialized as a child. Therefore, early socialization is very important for this breed.
Jack Russell Terrier Care
Dogs have short hair that does not require special care – unless the dog gets dirty in the ground. And he will do this with pleasure – either on the hunt, making his way in the hole for the animal, or in your garden, where it is so interesting to dig holes in search of mice! Bathing will help you get your dog tidy. The coat of smooth-haired Jack Russells does not tend to tangle and is easy to clean. It is sufficient to brush these dogs only once a week. Wire-haired Jack Russells may need professional grooming services.
It is recommended to bathe Jack Russell Terriers as needed, when the dog is already very dirty, and to trim the claws of the animal in time. Clean your dog’s ears weekly by dampening a cotton swab with a special product. Jack Russell Terrier ears should be thoroughly examined regularly. Examine the ear canal especially carefully. Jack Russell Terrier ears are often clogged with wax, you need to notice this in time, otherwise your pet will get serious hearing problems.
Check your pet’s teeth regularly and clean them with a special dog toothpaste if necessary.
Jack Russell Terrier grooming includes dog eye care. Sometimes a secret accumulates in the corners of the eyes of a small breed dog, it must be removed with a cotton swab dipped in a 3% boric acid solution. As a prophylactic Jack Russell Terrier eye care, daily wipe the animal’s eyes with a cotton swab or disc soaked in strong tea leaves. If you suspect conjunctivitis, see your veterinarian. The eyes are the most vulnerable part of the Jack Russell Terrier.
Jack Russell Terriers are great at adapting to different environments, but need a lot of exercise on a regular basis. These dogs love to run, walk, play and generally be outdoors. These dogs tend to become irritable if they are bored or prevented from running and playing, and if forced to stay indoors for extended periods of time.
It is not recommended to let the Jack Russell Terrier off the leash when walking: in these dogs, the hunting instinct is so strongly developed that, as soon as they see any moving object, they rush headlong in pursuit and may even bite (if the pursued ones are people).
Dogs are unpretentious in matters of nutrition. Remember that small dogs should not be overfed. Provide your pet with toys to chew on so they don’t mistake shoes or furniture for them. When feeding the Jack Russell Terrier, it is important to take into account that this dog has a tendency to be overweight, therefore, its diet and diet must be strictly controlled. The dog should be fed no more than twice a day – morning and evening.
Long-term, uncontrolled and non-rational nutrition will certainly affect the condition of the dog over time. That will certainly entail solving problems with health or being overweight and other unjustified actions in relation to the dog.
The correct Jack Russell Terrier diet should consist of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals in a balanced ratio. It should be remembered that Jack Russell’s need for these substances varies depending on many factors, for example, such as pregnancy, lactation, age of the animal, taking certain medications, stress, increased physical activity, environmental situation, and also the season. In this regard, it is necessary to adjust the diet depending on the situation..
Jack Russell Terrier Training
The breed standard provides for testing the working qualities of the dog. If you are going to hunt with your Jack Russell Terrier, find a good dog trainer. Jack Russell Terriers are smart and quick-witted, but if the training is monotonous, they can get bored and reluctant to follow commands.
From the very beginning, the methods of training the character and behavior of the dog should be consistent with the goal. A self-confident assertive dog is brought up differently than a calm domestic dog. In this case, the upbringing of the Jack Russell Terrier is based on the awakening and development of the desired qualities and character traits.
At 8-10 weeks of age, you can start raising puppies in a dog training school. Note that training with a trainer is highly recommended for non-hunting dogs as well! In the first lessons of hunting training, the foundations are laid, which are taught to the puppy in a playful way – he is taught to a certain environment (pond, forest), he “accidentally” finds a piece of hare’s fur, learns to run on the trail, to get a treat from behind a fence, using his nose he must find a master, etc. He is accustomed to the sound of a shot. Later, he uses the acquired skills in real situations..
In this case, the trainer makes sure that the puppy is not overloaded. Training should be done with the pleasure of the pet. But if the puppy is showing fear, you do not need to focus on this special attention, since consolation can only increase the feeling of fear. Your best bet is to try to distract him with something interesting.
It is important that the puppy is as comfortable as possible. You should try to avoid contact with aggressive dogs. This is not about isolating him from large dogs, but an attack on a puppy can postpone in his mind a persistent hostility to fellow tribesmen and cause further problems in his own behavior. Communicating with friendly dogs should be encouraged in every way.
Every hunter and general owner has certain expectations of their dog. If you want the command “Sit!” the dog sat down, then you should not indulge it. The dog should not get the impression that commands can or may not be followed. Of course, communication should not be limited to commands, but if you uttered a command, you must make sure that the dog observes it.
Then the moment comes when the puppy approaches the age at which play exercises should be replaced by serious training. The hunter must decide what working skills the dog needs. In principle, the following directions are suitable for hunting training of the Jack Russell Terrier:
- Burrow hunting; at the beginning in an artificial structure
- Game Hunt: Ground Pursuit
- Search for wounded game
Jack Russell Terrier Health
Jack Russell Terriers are a hardy dog breed with good health. However, there are several diseases most commonly encountered in this breed. Such diseases include:
- Dysplasia of the hip joint
- Congenital deafness
- Legg-Perthes disease
- Eye anomaly – “collie eyes”
The breed is in good health, however, no dog, especially the active and participating in the hunt, is immune from trouble. A strong guarantee of excellent physical condition – an impressive amount of stress and active pastime.
Pictures of Jack Russell Terrier
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