The poodle is considered one of the kindest breeds. Sophistication, intelligence, friendliness, artistry, charm make them unrivaled companions. And excellent scent, sight and hearing allow you to use them for hunting and detecting.
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History of the Poodle breed
Cynologists are convinced that the history of poodles goes back to antiquity and gives reason to consider them one of the oldest breeds. Nevertheless, there is no single version of the origin: the area where the breed was formed has not been precisely determined, the dogs that gave the genes for the new species have not been precisely identified.
Several European countries dispute the right to be considered the birthplace of the breed: Germany, France, Hungary.
The breed was bred for hunting. Most likely, poodles owe their existence to shaggy shepherd and water dogs, whose duties included the delivery of shot birds that fell into the reservoir.
Specific breeds that took part in the breeding of poodles are also named. But the problem is that the sizes of the poodles are very different. Therefore, the ancestors are called, based on the size.
- for large and medium-sized poodles: water spaniels, barbets, komondors, bullets;
- for small poodles: toy spaniels, malteses, bichons.
In both cases, retrievers, greyhounds and cops were involved in the birth of poodles.
Dogs with characteristic “lion” haircuts, depicted on coins, depicted on the bas-reliefs of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Researchers have found poodles on the murals of the Sicilian monastery of Montreal, the French abbey of Saint-Remy. Representatives of the breed were also reflected in painting: Dutch and Flemish artists found a place for them on canvases.
Written sources where poodles are mentioned date back to the 16th century, and in them there is already a distinction between pets in size and color. Researchers of the history of the breed were assisted by variants of the name of the breed in different European languages:
- the German word pudel or pudelin translates as “puddle”, “swamp” or the whole phrase “wallow in the water”.
- English puddle also translates as “puddle”;
- the French name caniche means “duck hunting dog”.
In the 18th century, poodles gained extraordinary popularity among the European aristocracy. Louis the Sixteenth, the French king, granted the right to this breed to be called “courtier”. At the same time, the court hairdressers had to master the basics of grooming and start cutting poodles..
- The companion qualities of the poodles were to the liking of many creative personalities: the owners of the dogs of this breed were Georges Sand, Schopenhauer, Beethoven.
- Circus trainers appreciated the graceful pets’ quick learning and obedience. In Europe, no show was complete without tricks done by small dogs.
- Poodles were also in demand in military conditions: loyal, obedient dogs helped to find wounded soldiers, delivered reports.
In 1886 British dog breeders drew up the first standard. A little later, the Germans also announced the creation of the standard. But these documents were different: if lightness and grace were valued in Britain, then in Germany, lovers of poodles strove for massiveness and heaviness.
Political views also affected the spread of different standards. In Eastern Europe, the German version of the poodle was adopted, while the Western powers were guided by the British one.
While the “battle of standards” was underway, a local poodle club began operating in France in 1923. Mention deserves Mademoiselle Galliani, its president and owner of the kennel, whose merits in creating the modern look of poodles are beyond doubt. In her kennel, tremendous success has been achieved in breeding poodles of all sizes, which have become the best representatives of the breed. In 1936, the International Association of Dog Handlers adopted a standard developed precisely in France.
In Russia, poodles appeared during the reign of Catherine II, but they received real recognition only in the 19th century, becoming constant companions of aristocrats and intellectuals. Domestic breeders preferred large poodles, while small ones were imported from abroad.
In the Soviet Union, after the end of the Second World War, a section “Royal Poodle” was opened, and in the 1960s, a section for lovers of small representatives of the breed was created. In the late 1980s, the All-Union Club began its work, which, under the name of the All-Russian Poodle Club, is still working, being part of the Russian Cynological Federation.
Poodle breeders set a task that the smallest and largest representatives of the breed look identical, differing only in size.
The current standard mentions 6 types of color, 2 types of wool and 4 divisions by height: large (royal), small, miniature (dwarf), toy poodle.
- Body – proportional. Length is greater than height.
- Chest – long, wide, deep, developed, with a high anterior part. Ribs – oval-vaulted shape.
- Back – flat, strong lower back.
- Stomach – tightened.
- Head – elongated, proportional, not very light, but graceful. The transition from forehead to muzzle is almost invisible. The muzzle is elongated, but not sharp.
- Lips – the upper one goes to the lower one, without overhanging. Black, white and gray individuals have black lips, brown ones – in color, apricot ones – any shade. The same goes for the nose..
- Nose – with a large lobe and developed nostrils.
- Jaws – strong, with a scissor bite and white teeth.
- Eyes – without bulge, almond-shaped, set in line with the bridge of the nose. Color – dark brown or black, brown poodles – brown.
- Ears – long, hanging to the corners of the lips, set high. The tips are rounded. The ears are covered with long hair.
- Neck – slightly curved towards the back of the head, of medium length.
- Front limbs – straight, parallel, graceful but strong.
- Hind limbs – parallel, with strong, prominent muscles. The knee and hock joints are well defined.
- Paws – oval, small, strong. Swimming membrane between the toes. The pillows are thick and thick. The color of the claws depends on the color.
- Tail – thick at the base, set high, pointing up. At rest – lowered, when moving – directed diagonally up.
- Movement – light and energetic. Graceful dancing gait. When trotting – springy – due to strong hind limbs.
- Wool – thick. There are two types: curly and cord. The curly one has pronounced curls, it is lush and dense. Cord – thick, thin, not shorter than 20 centimeters. Combed so that it sags evenly on the sides of the body. A “tail” is made over the ears, sometimes decorated with a bow.
- Color – according to the standards of the International Cynological Association, there are six colors: white, gray, black, brown, red, apricot. Other shades are recognized by the rest of the international community, but one thing remains unchanged: uniform color, no markings. There are requirements for shades. So, brown should be dark, gray should not be close to either black or white, apricot should not come close to beige, cream, red, and red should not turn into apricot.
There are 3 types of approved haircut standards that apply to both Curly and Corded Poodles..
- “a lion»: This style is seen in the oldest images – the body is trimmed from the base of the tail to the ribs, the top of the muzzle to the eyes, the bottom of the muzzle and cheeks, the front and hind legs – leaving cuffs or bracelets. “Pants” are allowed on the forelimbs. You can leave the fur on the lower back. On the tail – a pompom of a round or oval shape.
- “English haircut“: Similar to” Lion “, but the cuffs or bracelets on the hind legs are modeled as lush as possible, and” hoops “are made between them. The hair on the head is collected in a bun and pinned with a bow. In this case, the mustache is also trimmed..
- “Modern»: The hair is left on the limbs. It is permissible to combine the options “Lion” and “English haircut”.
Once every three months a thick coat needs a haircut. It is better to have the procedure done by professionals. Cutting a poodle yourself is a challenge. [/color-box]
But this is for “model” haircuts. Hygienic can be done with your own hands. You will need special scissors and a little patience. The regrown hair on the face, under the tail, in the groin, between the toes is trimmed. It is advisable to carry out this procedure once a month.
The poodle needs serious physical activity. Three walks a day – minimum. If the energy charge is not depleted, the pet will spin under your feet, inviting you to play. It is highly advisable to give your dog time to walk without a collar in order to run for fun.
Poodles can eat both natural products and premium dry food containing the necessary complex of vitamins and minerals. The diet for this breed is no different from that of most dogs..
In general, poodles are healthy animals with enviable endurance and optimism. But the diseases inherent in the breed still exist:
- Addison’s disease – insufficient production of adrenal hormones leads to stomach problems.
- Bloating is a problem requiring veterinary intervention.
- Hypoplasia of the optic nerve – leads to blindness or misperception of the image.
- Retinal atrophy – a disease inherent in the genes.
- Tumor – benign or malignant, often in older dogs.
- Chronic active hepatitis – not completely cured, but the development of the disease is inhibited.
- Hypothyroidism – thyroid problems.
- Hearing problems.
How to choose a puppy
The choice is huge: this breed has wide variations in color and size. If the family has a small child, it is better to immediately abandon miniature and toy poodles: small dogs suffer from negligence of the child very often.
- When visiting the nursery, you can watch the kids for a while and choose the most active one. It is worth considering that girls are calmer than boys.
- When choosing small breeds, do not take the smallest puppy from the litter – it can be painful and weak.
- The puppy’s eyes should be clean, free from dirt and secretions..
- Abdomen – no redness or rash.
- The hair under the tail is not sticky: this is a sign of no digestive problems.
- Constant scratching is not acceptable.
- The kid should not limp.
- You can choose puppies from the age of two months, and for exhibitions – not earlier than 4 months.
- White puppies may have beige patches on the ears, breasts, limbs, and insufficient pigment on the nose and pads. Everything will fall into place with age.
- You need to get a puppy card and a veterinary passport from the breeder, make sure of the vaccinations done.
The size, color, age, pedigree of the baby and the reputation of the cattery affect the price.
- Show class, for participation in international exhibitions – from 45 to 70 thousand rubles.
- Pedigree puppies – from 30 to 40 thousand rubles.
- Pet-class puppies, with minor deviations from the standards, will cost about 23 thousand rubles.
- Kids without a pedigree will get it for an amount from 5 to 10 thousand rubles.
It should always be remembered that a harsh coat greatly reduces the price of a puppy..